A process costing system is used in industries such as oil refineries, chemical plants, and textile mills that carry out production in a continuous and repetitive manner. When using this costing system, it is assumed that the production process is homogeneous and that all products go through the same sequence of production stages. Hence, a process costing system is used to estimate product costs in manufacturing industries. By using FIFO process costing, one of the most popular costing approaches, we can calculate a more accurate product costing. This works well especially if the product’s cost varies greatly from period to period.

  • (11) The semi-finished products are expressed in terms of complete products.
  • Process costing is also essential to calculate the cost of goods manufactured (COGM).
  • Under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), separating the production costs and assigning them to the department results in the costs of the product staying with the work in process inventory for each department.

Sometimes overheads are recorded at pre-determined rate based on direct wages, prime cost, etc. The cost allocated per unit is recorded on the balance sheet in the inventory asset account. Then, when the products are eventually sold, the cost is shifted to the cost of goods sold account on the income statement. The method assumes that materials are issued from the oldest supply in stock and that the cost of those units, when placed in stock, is the cost of those same units when issued.

Process Costing vs. Job Costing

In this scenario, job order costing is a less efficient accounting method because it costs more to track the costs per eight ounces of iced tea than the cost of a batch of tea. Overall, when it is difficult or not economically feasible to track the costs of a product individually, process costing is typically the best cost system to use. To calculate the cost per unit in process costing, divide the total costs incurred in a particular process by the total equivalent units of production for that process.

In addition to these advantages, process costing is also relatively cost-effective and easy to implement. Further, the basis for the allocation of the costing on a batch is arbitrary and not transparent as in the case of the job order costing. https://intuit-payroll.org/ TranZact is a team of IIT & IIM graduates who have developed a GST compliant, cloud-based, inventory management software for SME manufacturers. It digitizes your entire business operations, right from customer inquiry to dispatch.

Process Costing Explained

However, specific cars have custom options, so each individual car costs the sum of the specific parts used. Since there are eight slices per pizza, the leftover pizza would be considered two full equivalent units of pizzas. The equivalent unit is determined separately https://simple-accounting.org/ for direct materials and for conversion costs as part of the computation of the per-unit cost for both material and conversion costs. The difference between process costing and job order costing relates to how the costs are assigned to the products.

Process costing is suitable for

It is necessary to know the cost at every stage of production and this is fulfilled by process costing method. On this basis management is able to take decision in respect of make or buy the required commodities. For example – in Process 1st yarn is produced or manufactured at a cost of Rs. 125 per kg. In this case, it is profitable to buy the yarn from the market at a saving of Rs. 10 per kg. Under this method, all products pass through a series of processes in sequence.

Process costing is applied to determine the cost of production in industries where products pass through different phases of production before completion. (2) It helps in the computation of costs of processes as well as the finished product. Overheads incurred on two or more processes are apportioned on the basis of direct wages or on any other suitable basis.

Analyze inventory to determine the amount of inventory at the beginning of the period

The similarities between job order cost systems and process cost systems are the product costs of materials, labor, and overhead, which are used determine the cost per unit, and the inventory values. Regardless of the costing system used, manufacturing costs consist of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. Figure 8.61 shows a partial organizational chart for Rock City Percussion, a drumstick manufacturer. In this example, two groups—administrative and manufacturing—report directly to the chief financial officer (CFO).

This also streamlines your Inventory, Purchase, Sales & Quotation management processes in a hassle-free user-friendly manner. The proper amount is determined by assessing how many products were completed and how much inventory was in progress at the end of the period. Process costing can also accommodate increasingly complex business scenarios. While making drumsticks may sound simple, an immense amount of technology is involved.


We are going to discuss how these methods are used in a process costing system but first let’s have an understanding of what a process costing system is. Process Costing is the cost accounting method in which production overhead is equally allocated to each product due to their similarity and mass production. Moreover, raw material needs to pass through multiple stages of production before turning into finished goods. Companies that mass produce a product allocate the costs to each department and use process costing. For example, General Mills uses process costing for its cereal, pasta, baking products, and pet foods.

This makes it easy to switch over to a job costing system from a process costing one if the need arises, or to adopt a hybrid approach that uses portions of both systems. The process costing is suitable for the manufacturing companies where identical/homogenous products are produced and https://turbo-tax.org/ there is no gap in the process of production. As raw materials progress through the production cycle, identical packages of paper are produced. Direct material costs Rs. 25,000 for the filling department, and conversion costs amount to Rs. 50,000 (including direct labor and overhead).

For manufacturing with great work in progress, there will be a problem as management needs to estimate the equivalent of finished goods. Any error in estimation will impact the entire cost of inventory in that assembly line. Food processing operations, for example, begin with the direct material, such as a potato, and gradually transform the direct material into finished products (such as wafers) by various rendering operations.